The memory of the 1947 partition of India and Pakistan was reignited as I reflected upon my reading of Chapter 8 – Sabine River, CA. 1804-34, from the book entitled “EL NORTE.” Many individuals, families and especially faith groups were living together in India. The Government divides tore families and loved ones apart, with the formation of National boundaries and nation creation. In a similar way yearning for land, love and loss, I was led to this thinking. What was once a flourishing Spanish Empire entitled as New Spain, was slowly disintegrating as those who were once allies that sought to help each other, had their eyes set upon Spains Florida.

New Spain had prized Florida as its own and was eventually forced to give up Florida. General Andrew Jackson argued of Spains treatment of Floridas people. Members of congress within the United States disagreed with Jacksons actions that led to a house vote. The outcome of the vote decided in Jacksons favor, the vote numbers revealed that opposition did in-fact exist. The outcome was a turning point for Spain’s Florida, its most beautiful prized possession.

My reading of this history can also be connected to present day events taking place within the United States Congress with the For The Peoples Act. Which was a vote taking place on June 22nd at Capitol Hill. The vote was blocked and did not pass. This present day event revealed the much needed strength, stamina and advocacy that is required to create policy, the agreements, disagreements and also points for balance.

Whilst this chapter continues to build upon the formation of the United States of America, it was an emotional read, that further emphasized the lost American history. The desire to preserve and protect Spain’s discovery of America. Whilst Spain was forced to give-up Florida, the United States believed that it was in its best interests simply to protect Florida from enemies. The Spanish argued of Jackson’s invasion of Pensacola, Florida. There were agreements and disagreements that eventually led to the signing of the 1819 Adams-Oniś Treaty, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty and the Florida Treaty to establish boundaries of the Sabine River. Spain’s Florida colony of more that 300 years ended.

  • Spain battled to regain control of Florida with the war of 1812 (Gibson, 2019, p. 167)
  • U.S. retribution was led by General Andrew Jackson (2019, p. 167)
  • Jackson set his sights upon Florida as the British were aiding the Spanish, Spain and Britain were allies (p. 163 – 168)
  • Jacksons Pensacola expedition was voted as unconstitutional with 70 votes in favour and 100 against (p. 173)
  • King Fernando VII’s authority was fully restored in Spain with help from Austria, Prussia and Russia (p. 175)
  • The Battle of Ayacucho 1824 ended with the creation of Republics in the Americas of “Mexico, Gran Columbia, (Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador after 1830), Peru, Chile, the United Provinces of Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua after 1840), Bolivia and the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata (Argentina)” (p. 175)
  • Spain was very reluctant to recognize the independence of continents and republics as especially they were all belonging to New Spain and the Spanish Empire.

Notes: These thoughts were originally hand-written on June 27th 2021. Please note that these are my thoughts and views upon my reading to gain an understanding of American history of what interested me within this chapter, there are many more points that have not been discussed within my writing. Thank You!

I am particularly aware of the recent building collapse in Surfside, Miami, Florida. The thoughts and views within this writing are in no-way connected to the present incidents in Florida, and are a reflection and commentary upon my book reading. Please also note that I decided to enticed this post with the word connection rather than summary, especially as I was able to draw connections from present day and other historical events. This type of learning is known as making inferences, to deepen our knowledge and understanding of content / information.


Gibson, C. (2019). EL NORTE The Epic and Forgotten History of Hispanic North America. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Related Blog Posts:

  • Image 1 – Link | Sabine River is located in Southern U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana, it is 360 miles long. Sabine Rivers empties into Sabine Lake within the Gulf of Mexico. Sabine Lake is know for is great fishing of Red Fish, Trout and Flounder.
  • Image 2 – Link | Port Arthur Fishing map
  • Image 3 – Link | Red Fish

My Thoughts to Share with Love and Kindness! 🙂

2 thoughts on “CHAPTER 8 | CONNECTIONS!

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