Within this chapter I took some time to think about the act of letter writing, and how much time it took to pass on a message in letter form from coast to coast (p. 131). Given the urgency of the situation or not. For instance as Spanish Royal Decrees were being given by the Spanish Crown, those who were within the Spanish Empire in present day USA had to follow through with instructions, but how do we know these were followed through with or not? Thus the thought of the time-lapses in-between sending and receiving. This thought can be related to the treatment of indigenous people which is described as horrific (p. 139), even though the Spanish Crown insisted upon gentleness and a generous spirit.

The tribal people of Alto California (Upper California, a Province of New Spain) became loyal to the Spanish Crown and relations flourished (p. 138). The Spanish were impressed with the fertile lands, plants, vegetation and animals. There was plenty of potential for survival. As this area was further west of the already existing Spanish territories, the Spanish built roads to connect their territory to Alta California (p. 137).

Historical Map of the famous Spanish missions that took place in California formerly known as Alto California – with the roads connecting the mission translated as “The King’s Highway!”
Winding Road in the Kings Canyon.

Alta California was a territory south of Nootka, which was first discovered by the Spaniards, well before the British explorer Captain James Cook (p. 129). Nootka is a territory that is located in the western region of Canada and what is known today as Vancouver. The Spanish were unsettled by hearing of a Russian presence, thus returning back and forth to Nootka. Throughout the time of a Spanish existence there were battles between Spanish, British and the French claim. The French got busy with the French revolutions that were taking place in Europe, leaving Britain and Spain to battle it out (p. 132-133). There were times when Nootka was clearly claimed by the Spanish and clearly claimed by Britain. The disputes could not be resolved, to the ache of the Spanish heart, their forts were destroyed, the British flag was also lowered, everything that was established was given to the people of the lands. Nootka was prized for its lush Pines, Spruce, logging and Salmon farms (p. 129). Nootka also known as Nootka Sound was renamed at the time to Isla de Quadra y Vancouver (p. 133).

This chapter reiterates the harsh histories for the development and claim to land, with the continued elements of romanticism related to the discoveries for survival, to also reveal the historical connections tied to nation-state.

  • Spanish formal possession of Nootka in 1789, the Spaniard’s formally built a small fort and named it as : San Lorenzo de Nuca (p. 131).
  • Spanish expeditions lasted almost 2 centuries (p. 143).


  • CHAPTER 6 | “Nootka Sound, Canada, ca. 1760s-1789
  • Gibson, C. (2019). EL NORTE The Epic and Forgotten History of Hispanic North America. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Related Blog Posts:

  • Image – 1 Link Image of Nookta Sound Island at present.
  • Image – 2 Link
  • Image – 3 Link

Notes: These thoughts were originally hand-written on June 10th 2021. Please note that these are my thoughts and views upon my reading to gain an understanding of American history of what interested me within this chapter, there are many more points that have not been discussed within my writing. Thank You!

With Love & Kindness! 🙂

One thought on “CHAPTER 6 | SUMMARY!

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