Within Chapter 7 there is further description of Louisiana, however we are within a different time-frame as now conflicts are arising from the French revolution and their colony of Haiti (p. 146), that had an effect upon New Spain. It is inevitable to note as the reader we can see what is happening. Where it did take me some time to digest that the once loyal, were now plotting against Spain (p. 147). It didn’t seem right especially as the Spanish were prominent ro assist with the creation of a “United States.”

Louisiana was considered one of the most French cities, however many of the street names are derived from Spain. New Orleans was the capital of the Spanish province, Louisiana. Jackson Square was formerly named as Plaza de Armas (p. 143). The city was built by the Spanish, with architects who utilized lines to organize spaces within their Americas. Louisiana was rebuilt with the assistance of French architect Chief Royal engineer Pierre le Blond de la Tour. The rebuilding was catastrophically destroyed by a fire in 1788. The Spanish tired to rebuild the city, yet another fire erupted in 1794 (p. 144). The Spanish once again rebuilt the city with wooden and stone buildings, courtyards, balconies and iron railings. Louisiana became a blend of French and Spanish colonial style of living. New Orleans was connected to the Hispanic world of Havana (p. 144).

Today it would be unimaginable to think that New Orleans and Louisiana was under Spanish rule. And it is important to note that the territory / land mass was much larger as is mapped today.

As the civil unrest took place, French ambassadors plotted to attack Spanish colonies. This created tension between the United States and New Spain. In 1800 there was a signing of a secret treaty called San IIdefonso (p. 152) which returned control of Louisiana to France, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson had their sights upon Florida, however Spain insisted and argued that Florida remained thiers as per right of conquest (p. 153).

REFLECTION | After taking the time to read this chapter and the previous ones as well. We begin to notice patterns and events that led up to the formation of America as it is known today. When we discover the histories we begin to think about what truly was and is precious. Ans how we view what we think of America today.

As I felt unsettled within, especially to learn of the plots and when loyalties turn to betrayals. I decided that: today America is most commonly referred to as the “United States” and that it is once again important for the emphasis to include the word America – thus; The United States of America.

You and I could draw our own meaning and inferences to this title, but for me the word America is absolutely necessary; to connect the original Spanish discovery or land, the name given by the German map maker Martin Waldseemuller, to what is formed with the term, United States. This is also to reiterate inclusivity as well as to remain respectful to this Spanish heritage which does belong to America – The United States of America.


Gibson, C. (2019). EL NORTE The Epic and Forgotten History of Hispanic North America. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

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Notes: These thoughts were originally hand-written on June 14th 2021 Please note that these are my thoughts and views upon my reading to gain an understanding of American history of what interested me within this chapter, there are many more points that have not been discussed within my writing. Thank You!

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My Thoughts To Share With Love & Kindness! 🙂

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