As I begin to reflect upon the contents of Chapter 4, I would have to say once again that history becomes complex. With the many arrivals, battles and victories that emerge and are significant to the creation of history. I was especially drawn to a previous question that I had, which also created an ahaa moment. I realized that as the Spanish conquest and mission progressed, harmonious relations began to flourish. Especially to note that the Amerindians were pivotal to the Spanish missions. With the arrival of the British, the British claimed territories such as the Virginia colony, Jamestown and Georgia. And it was with the British arrival that African slaves also arrived. The ahaa moment was subtle yet quite brilliant, especially to note that America was once an African slave-free nation.

Alot did change with British slave-trade in the 17th century, as Amerindian workers were replaced by African slaves. However, African slaves would often escape as runaways to Spanish held territories. Which of course gave rise to issues, such as: What are we going to do? There were also bans on slavery and the Governors decided to utilize the runaways to help with the battle against the English.

I was impressed that the Spanish did not interfere with the English colonies / territories, but were disrupted when the British decided to invade and attack their well-established lands. It was also during this time that the Frenchman Jean l’ Archeveque pledged allegiance to Spain. The Spanish also began to explore what is known today as Texas, by creating forts as what we know today as The Alamo. A Catholic friar wrote to the Spanish King recommending Texas, especially as the climate was similar to Spain’s Castille.

During this time Spanish migration to the Spanish territories was well established. English migrants who were escaping the English reformation and named as the Puritans migrated to the British colonies. Catholicism was viewed as the motive for the Spanish and Christianity for the English.

  • Walter Raleigh – Made his first serious attempt to put a settlement in Florida (p. 83)
  • Spanish Crown allowed marriages between Amerindians, the English Crown did not.
  • Story of Pocahontas – daughter of a chief who married Captain John Rolfe (p.85)
  • Arrival of the slave trade (p. 87)
  • Treaty of Madrid – drawn to ease tensions between England and Spain (p. 89)
  • Alamo was constructed (p. 98)
  • War of Jenkins 1739 – Florida (p. 103)
  • Battle of the “bloody Mose” – Florida (p. 103)

Notes: Please note that these are my thoughts and views upon my reading to gain an understanding of American history of what interested me within this chapter, there are many more points that have not been discussed within my writing. Thank You!


  • Chapter 4 – Fort Mose, Florida, ca. 1600-1760
  • Gibson, C. (2019). EL NORTE The Epic and Forgotten History of Hispanic North America. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

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